Forearm Anatomy Exam on Monday!!!


Do you need a little help on the forearm? Here are some mnemonics to help you out.
For Carpal Bones, there are many mnemonics out there. I only posted in the two I found that is easy to memorize and is widely used. Other mnemonics (as they usually are) are for parental guidance. This is from lateral to medial. There are eight bones. In each row there are four bones.
Here are menmonics that I know:
Secret            Stop                    Scaphoid
Lovers            Letting                Lunate
Try                 Those                 Triquetral
Positions         People                Pisiform
That                Touch                Trapezium
They               The                    Trapezoid    
Can't               Cadavers           Capitate
Handle            Hand                 Hamate
The first four(Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum and Pisiform) represents the proximal row.
The last four (Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate and Hamate.) are part of the distal row.
The trapezium is the most lateral bone in the distal row. It is at the thumb.
The Trapezoid is inside or in its side.
Now that you know the names of the carpal bones and their sequence, you also need to identify them. Remember this: “The boat sailed to the moon with 3 pEas in a rOw, at the wheel was Captain Hook”.
        Boat is scaphoid.
        Moon is lunate. 
        3 is triquetral. 
        Peas is pisiform (stressing the E sound for trapezium). 
        Row is trapezoid (stressing the O for trapezOid). 
        Captain is capitate. 
        Hook is hamate (hamate has the hook).


I remember mine by imagining a scaffold (scaphoid) going up to the moon (lunate). The moon has a pyramid(triquetral) and from it came out four pisi which is waray waray for piglets i think (pisiform). To get t
down I needed to use a trapeze and I hold on to it using my legs forming a letter m(trapezium) and then I flew to the other trapeze where I was rewarded a doughnut (trapezoid). By doing these stunts I was decapitated (capitate) and my thighs were made into hams(hamate). This sounds complicated so ditch it!


The Extensor Muscles of The Forearm follow the Rule of Three (reminds me of the Wiccan Law of Three that whatever energy a person puts out into the world, be it positive or negative, will be returned to that person three times).
3 muscles for wrist extension
  • Extensor carpi radialis brevis
  • Extensor carpi radialis longus
  • Extensor carpi ulnaris













3 muscles for finger extension
  • Extensor digitorum ( for all four fingers)
  • Extensor indicis
  • Extensor digiti minimi

3 muscles for thumb
  • Extensor pollicis longus
  • Extensor policis brevis
  • Abductor pollicis longus

All extensor muscles of forearm are supplied by the radial nerve. Injury to radial nerve caused the classical wrist drop due to unopposed flexor muscles.



For the
Flexor Muscles of the Forearm, here is an interesting way on how to memorize it:

There are five (five digits of your hand). Place your thumb into your palm, then lay that hand palm down on your other arm. Place it 
at your medial epicondyle with your middle finger pointing towards the thumb distally. The forearm must be in supine position.

Your thumb will be below the palm. This shows the muscle which is deep to the four: Flexor digitorum superficialis. The four fingers will be pointing towards the hand. This represents the layers in flexor muscles in the forearm.
Your 4 fingers now show distribution: spells PFPF (pass/fail, pass/fail)



           Pronator teres - represented by the index finger
           Flexor carpi radialis - 
the middle finger point pointing towards radial bone, hence radialis
                       
           Palmaris longus
           Flexor carpi ulnaris
There are 3 layers in the flexor compartment. The muscles in the deep layer are flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), flexor pollicis longus and pronator quadratus.
All flexor muscles of forearm are supplied by median nerve except one and half. They are flexor carpi ulnaris and half of flexor digitorum profundus.
For the Muscles of the Hand:

       PAD DAB - palmar hand muscles adduct, dorsal hand muscles abduct

For Thenar and hypothenar muscles:(medial to lateral)

All              
Abductor digiti minimi
For            Flexor digiti minimi 
One           Opponens digiti minimi
And           Adductor pollicis
One           Opponens Pollicis
For            Flexor Pollicis Brevis
All             Abductor pollicis brevis
All intrinsic muscles of the hand are innervated by ulnar nerve except these muscles which are innervated by the median nerve.
The LOAF muscles:
Lateral 2 lumbricals, Opponens pollicis, Abductor pollicis brevis, Flexor pollicis brevis

Carpal tunnel syndrome causes MEDIAN TRAP :
          Myxoedema                                      
          Edema premenstrually                        
          Diabetes
          Idiopathic
          Agromegaly
          Neoplasm
          Trauma (occupational)
          Rheumatoid arthritis
          Amyloidosis
          Pregnancy
This mnemonic fits nicely since median nerve is really trapped in a restricted space in betweent he flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi radialis muscles.
 Three B's bend or flex the elbow:
          Brachialis
          Biceps
          Brachioradialis

 
The superficial group of the  anterior forearm muscles, uses this mnemonic :
          “Pimps F*ck Prostitutes For Fun”:
            Pronator teres
            Flexor carpi radialis
            Palmaris longous
            Flexor carpi ulnaris
            Flexor digitorum superficialis

The attachments of muscles near the
bicipital groove uses this: 
            “The lady between two majors”
              Teres major attaches to medial lip of groove.
              Pectoralis major to lateral lip of groove.
              Latissimus (Lady) is on floor of groove, between the 2 majors.
Cubital fossa contents uses this 
             "Really Need Booze To Be At My Nicest” (lateral to medial) or RBBM:
                     Radial nerve
                     Biceps Tendon
                     Brachial Artery
                     Median nerve

The muscles supplied by the
radial nerve are the (simplified) “BEST muscles”:
            Brachioradialis
            Extensors
            Supinator
            Triceps
The Palmaris longus is between two Palmars:
       Palmar cutaneous branch of Ulnar nerve
       Palmar cutaneous branch of Median nerve

For the
elbow: which side has common flexor origin
          
FM (as in FM Radio): Flexor Medial, so Common Flexor Origin is on the medial

Which is powerful between supination (cup your hands ) and pronation? Supination. 
Why? Screws were designed to be tightened well by majority of people. “Righty tighty”.Majority of people are right-handed. To tighten screws you turn to the right.Turning right-hand to the right is supination. 

Common features of the Median and ulnar nerves:
          Each supply 1/2 of flexor digitorum profundus
          Each supplies 2 lumbricals. 
          Each has a palmar cutaneous nerve that pops off prematurely.
          Each supplies an eminence group of muscles
                  ulnar: hypothenar
                  median: thenar 
          Each enters forearm through two heads 
                  ulnar: heads of flexor carpi ulnaris
                  median: heads of pronator teres
          Each has no branches in upper arm. 
          Each makes two fingers claw when cut at wrist. 
          Each supplies a palmaris 
                  ulnar: palmaris brevis
                  median: palmaris longus 
How to quickly recognize an Ulnar bone: 
    The Ulnar bone has a “U” at the end where it goes over the trochlea.
It is my fervent prayer that these things will help you pass your exams!

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